**TABLE 1. **Univariate statistics for anteroposterior tooth length (mm) of specimens listed in Appendix 3. n = number of specimens, Mean = arithmetic mean, StDev = standard deviation, CV = coefficient of variation expressed as a percentage.

Taxon |
n |
Mean |
StdDev |
CV (%) |

L. latifrons |
177 | 9.4 | 1.0 | 10.4 |

N. boodjamullensis |
10 | 7.1 | 0.6 | 8.7 |

P. cinereus |
621 | 7.5 | 0.5 | 6.3 |

P. gigas |
45 | 22.6 | 2.6 | 11.5 |

R. magna |
16 | 19.6 | 2.0 | 10.1 |

S. medius |
25 | 13.7 | 0.9 | 6.8 |

V. ursinus |
236 | 10.4 | 1.1 | 10.3 |

W. encorensis |
18 | 9.3 | 1.2 | 12.7 |

W. wakefieldi |
21 | 7.2 | 0.9 | 12.4 |

R. crowcrofti |
15 | 13.7 | 1.0 | 7.4 |

R. ngangaba |
7 | 11.6 | 0.7 | 6.2 |

Specimens from BaD | 4 | 11.5 | 1.0 | 8.9 |

Specimens from BR | 2 | 12.6 | 0.3 | 2.2 |

R. crowcrofti and R. ngangaba combined |
22 | 13.0 | 1.4 | 10.6 |

R. crowcrofti from COA only |
11 | 13.7 | 0.9 | 6.4 |

R. crowcrofti and specimens from BR combined |
17 | 13.6 | 1.0 | 7.6 |

R. crowcrofti and specimens from BaD combined |
19 | 13.3 | 1.4 | 10.2 |

R. crowcrofti and QM F23763 combined |
16 | 13.7 | 1.0 | 7.4 |

R. ngangaba and specimens from BR combined |
9 | 11.8 | 0.8 | 6.6 |

R. ngangaba and specimens from BaD combined |
11 | 11.6 | 0.8 | 6.8 |

R. ngangaba and QM F23763 combined |
8 | 11.7 | 0.8 | 7.0 |

**TABLE 2**. Body weight estimates for a range of taxa based on third molar area using the ‘Diprotodontians only’ data set in Myers (2001). The 3UMA and 3LMA equations were used for upper and lower molars, respectively. n = number of measurements used in calculation.

Taxon |
Tooth position |
n |
Body weight estimate |
Notes |
||

Min (kg) |
Max (kg) |
Average (kg) |
||||

L. latifrons |
m2-3 | 14 | 10 | 27 | 19 | Very low estimate based on this sample. Expected body weight for L. latifrons is 17.5-36 kg (Taggart and Temple-Smith, 2008). |

M2-3 | 11 | 11 | 27 | 16 | ||

N. boodjamullensis |
M2-3 | 4 | 6 | 10 | 8 | |

P. cinereus |
m2-3 | 172 | 4 | 11 | 7 | Expected body weight is 4.1-14.9 kg (Martin et al., 2008), although Myers (2001) gives 5-6 kg. |

M2-3 | 139 | 7 | 17 | 11 | ||

P. gigas |
m2-3 | 6 | 216 | 300 | 255 | |

M2-3 | 2 | 191 | 254 | 223 | ||

R. lemleyi |
m2-3 | 2 | 147 | 165 | 156 | |

R. crowcrofti |
m2-3 | 5 | 48 | 63 | 54 | Around 50 kg. About double the size of modern wombats. |

M2-3 | 4 | 36 | 68 | 51 | ||

R. ngangaba |
m2-3 | 1 | 25 | 25 | 25 | Half the weight of R. crowcrofti, similar in size to modern wombats. |

M2-3 | 1 | 25 | 25 | 25 | ||

V. ursinus |
m2-3 | 17 | 14 | 34 | 22 | Expected body weight for V. ursinus is 22-39 kg (McIlroy, 2008), excluding Tasmanian and Flinders Island forms (which were included in this sample). |

M2-3 | 12 | 13 | 24 | 18 | ||

W. encorensis |
m2-3 | 6 | 12 | 28 | 19 | Considering the underestimates for modern wombats (which are similar in size and morphology), this could also be an underestimate. |

M2-3 | 6 | 13 | 19 | 16 | ||

W. wakefieldi |
m2-3 | 5 | 7 | 11 | 9 | |

M2-3 | 5 | 5 | 8 | 7 | ||

S. medius |
m3 | 3 | 37 | 41 | 39 | Using 3LML equation, as don't have widths. |

**TABLE 3. **Estimated ontogenetic stages for *Rhizophascolonus * specimens. Wear stage for each tooth corresponds to 1 = developing, 2 = erupting, 3 = in occlusion but with little or no wear and 4=noticeable wear. Ontogenetic stage is modified from Black et al., 2010. Age and life stage are based on Green and Rainbird, 1987 and Triggs, 2009 for *V. ursinus*, Taggart et al., 2007 for *L. latifrons* and Blanshard, 1990 for *P. cinereus*. * = based on *P. cinereus*.

Specimen number |
Site |
Taxon |
Tooth position |
Wear stage |
Ontogenetic stage |
Approximate age |
Early life stage |

QM F57959 | COA | R. crowcrofti |
MX | 4 | At least stage IV | > 8 months | |

QM F57960 | COA | R. crowcrofti |
mx | 4 | At least stage IV | > 8 months | |

QM F57963 | COA | R. crowcrofti |
MX | 4 | At least stage IV | > 8 months | |

QM F12452 | COA | R. crowcrofti |
mx | 3 | At least stage IV | If m3 = 10-12 months; If m4 = older than 12 months* | |

QM F20706 | CS | R. ngangaba |
MX | (1 to)2 | Late II to III (depending on whether M2 or M3) | 6-8 months | In and out of pouch, still suckles, at least occasionally |

QM F57967 | CS | R. ngangaba |
m1 | 3 | II | 5-7 months | Suckling pouch young, starts to venture out of pouch occasionally |

QM F23772 | CS | R. ngangaba |
M1 | 3 | II | 5-7 months | Suckling pouch young, starts to venture out of pouch occasionally |

QM F57968 | GGS | R. ngangaba |
mx | 2 (to 3) | Late II to III (depending on whether m2 or m3) | 6-8 months | In and out of pouch, still suckles, at least occasionally |

QM F23765 | Upper | R. ngangaba |
M1 | 2 to 3 | Early II | 5-6 months | Suckling pouch young, first emergence from pouch |

QM F23769 | CS | R. ngangaba |
mx | 2 to 3 | Late II to III (depending on whether m2 or m3) | 6-8 months | In and out of pouch, still suckles, at least occasionally |

QM F23764 | Upper | R. ngangaba |
m1 | 3 | II | 5-7 months | Suckling pouch young, first emergence from pouch |

QM F23768 | Upper | R. ngangaba |
mx | 3 | Late II to III (depending on whether m2 or m3) | 6-8 months | In and out of pouch, still suckles, at least occasionally |

QM F23903 | CS | R. ngangaba |
P3 | 3 (to 4) | III | 7-8 months | At foot, occasionally suckles |

QM F23763 | Upper | Rhizophascolonus sp. |
mx | 2 | If m3 = III; If m4 = at least stage IV | > 7 months | |

QM F57966 | COA | Rhizophascolonus sp. |
p3 or dp3 | 3 (to 4) | If dp3 = I to early II; If p3 = late II or early III | If dp3 = < 6 months; If p3 = 6-8 months | Suckling pouch young |